Joseph Davidovits

www.davidovits.info

Milestones in geopolymers

Milestones in the Development of
Geopolymeric Chemistry

Excerpt from the Chemical Abstract Data Bank

1972: first patent on polycondensation of kaolinite with NaOH
TI : Sintered composite panels
AU : Davidovits J
AF : Coordination et Developpement de l’lnnovation S.A.
SO : FR72138746 721102 ; US Patent 3,950,470; US 4,028,454
KW : building panel manuf; kaolin building panel; sand building panel; resin building panel

1975: first patent on hydrosodalite Na-PS shaped articles
TI : Agglomerating compressible mineral materials in the form of powder, particles, or fibers
AU : Davidovits J
AF : Coordination et Developpement de l’lnnovation S. A.; Cordi SA Fr.
SO : Patent DE2621815- 761209;Ger.Offen.; 10pp.; FR75/17337-75O603 GB Patent 1,481,479
KW : hydrosodalite shaped article

1976: terminology of the sialate chemistry
TI : SOLID PHASE SYNTHESIS OF MINERAL BLOCKPOLYMER BY LOW TEMPERATURE POLYCONDENSATION OF ALUMINO-SILICATE POLYMERS.
AU : DAVIDOVITS J
AF : CORDI S.A., SAINT-QUENTIN, FR.
SO : IN: LONG-TERM PROP. POLYM. POLYM. MATER. INT. UNION PURE APPL. CHEM. MACROMOL. SYMP.; STOCKHOLM; 1976; S.L.; DA. S.D.; PP. (3P.)
KW : INORGANIC COPOLYMER; BLOCK COPOLYMER; CROSSLINKING; PREPARATION

1979: first patent on geopolymeric resin
TI : Inorganic polymer
AU : Davidovits J
AF : Cordi S. A.; Fr.
SO : Patent FR2454227 – 810306; Fr Demande; 11 pp.; FR79.22041- 790904; US patent 4,349,386; US patent 4,472,199
KW : zeolite hard nonporous

1979: first papers on archaeology applications:
TI : La fabrication des vases de pierres au V et IV Millenaires.
AU : Davidovits J.
SO : 2nd International Congress of Egyptology, 1979, Grenoble; Abstracts
KW : stone vases; prodynastic period; fabrication without carving.

TI : Les offrandes de natron et le symbole de l’incarnation divine dans la pierre.
AU : Davidovits J.
SO : 2nd international Congress of Egyptology, 1979, Grenoble; Abstracts
KW : natron salt; sodium carbonate; petrification; ceramics; objects in stone; pyramids construction with agglomerated stone.

1980: first patent on low cost building material
TI : Structural components using ferruginous, lateritic and ferrallitic soils
AU : Davidovits J
AF : Coordination et Developpement de l’Innovation S. A.; Fr. (FR)
SO : Patent FR2490626 A1, 820328; Fr. Demaride; 7 pp.; FR80l20388, 800923
KW : ferruginous soil building material; lateritic soil building material; ferrallitic soil building material

1981: first patent on geopolymeric foam
TI : Expanded minerals based on potassium poly(sialates) and/or sodium, potassium poly(sialate-siloxo) types
AU : Davidovits J; Legrand J J
AF : Societe Anon. Coordination et Developpement de l’lnnovation (CORDI);
SO : Patent FR2512805A1, 830318; Fr. Demande; 11 pp.; FR81117543, 810917
KW : potassium alumnosilicate foam polycondensation

1984: first patent on geopolymeric cement
TI : Early high-strength mineral polymer
AU : Davidovits J; Sawyer J L
AF : Pyrament, Inc.; USA (US)
SO : Patent US 4,509,985 A 850409; U.S.; 7 pp.; European Patent EP 0 153 097
KW : aluminosilicate polymer slag concrete; sialate polymer slag concrete

1987: first patent on fiber/geopolymer composite
TI : Ceramic-ceramic composite materials and their manufacture
AU : Davidovits N; Davidovics M; Davidovits J
SO : Patent WO 88/02741 A1880421; PCT Int. Appi.; 21 pp.; US patent 4,888,311.
KW : silicon carbide fiber reinforced aluminosilicate; sodium sulfite silicon carbide aluminosilicate; alkali metal silicon carbide; aluminosilicate

1987: first patent on geopolymeric waste containment
TI : Method for stabilizing, solidifying and storing waste material
AU : Davidovits J.
SO : Patent WO 89/02766; International Patent Application published April 08, 1989 Priority US 104,190, filed october 02, 1987; US patent 4,859,367.
KW : waste stabilization, solidification, storage with geopolymer matrix. long term durability.

1987: first paper on ancient concretes
TI : Ancient and modern concretes: what is the real difference?
AU : Davidovits J
AF : Barry Univ.; lnst. AppI. Archaeol. Sci.; Miami Shores; FL; USA (uS)
SO : Concrete International: Des. Constr, (ClDCD2,01624075); 87; Vol.9(12); pp.23-9

1988 : first hieroglyphic text deciphered on pyramid construction
TI : Pyramid Man-Made Stone, Myths or Facts,( III) : The Famine Stela provides the hieroglyphic names of chemicals and minerals involved in the construction.
AU : Davidovits J
AF : Barry Univ.; lnst. AppI. Archaeol. Sci.; Miami Shores; FL; USA (uS)
SO : Fifth Internationl Congress of Egyptology, Cairo 1998, Abstracts of papers, pp. 57-58

1990
TI : Geopolymeric concretes for environmental protection
AU : Davidovits J; Comrie D C; Paterson J H; Ritcey D J
AF : Barry Univ.; Inst. Appl. Archaeol. Sci.; Miami Shores; FL; USA (US)
SO : Concrete International. (CIDCD2,01624075); 90; VOL.12 (7); PP.30-40

1991
TI : Geopolymer: ultrahigh-temperature tooling material for the manufacture of advanced composites
AU : Davidovits J; Davidovics M
AF : Cordi-Geopolym. S. A.; Geopolym. Inst.; Saint Quentin; F-02100; Fr. (FR)
SO : INT. SAMPE SYMP. (ISSEEG,08910138); 91; VOL.36 (2); PP.1939-49

TI : Geopolymers: inorganic polymeric new materials
AU : Davidovits J
AF : Cordi-Geopolymere S. A.; Geopolym. Inst.; Saint Quentin; 02100; Fr. (FR)
SO : J. THERM. ANAL. (JTHEA9,03684466); 91; VOL.37 (8); PP.1633-56
SC : S57-000/1992

1993 : First paper on Global-Warming CO2 mitigation
TI : Geopolymer Cements to minimize Carbon-dioxide greenhouse-warming
AU : Davidovits, J.
AF : Géopolymère, Saint-Quentin, France
SO : CERAMIC TRANSACTIONS, VOL. 37 (1993), CEMENT-BASED MATERIALS: PRESENT, FURURE, AND ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS, M. MOUKWA & AL. EDS., PP. 165-182; AMERICAN CERAMIC SOCIETY.

1994
TI : Recent Progresses in Concretes for Nuclear Waste and Uranium Waste Containment
AU : Davidovits, J
AF : Géopolymère, Saint-Quentin, France
SO : CONCRETE INTERNATIONAL, Vol. 16, N°12, PP. 53-58 (1994)

TI : Geopolymers: Man-Made Rock Geosynthesis and the Resulting Development of Very Early High Strength Cement
AU : Davidovits, J
AF : Géopolymère, Saint-Quentin, France
SO : JOURNAL OF MATERIALS EDUCATION, PP. 91-137, Vol. 16, N°2&3 (1994)

TI : High Alkali Cements for 21st Century Concretes
AU : Davidovits, J.
AF : Géopolymère, Saint-Quentin, France
SO : CONCRETE TECHNOLOGY, PAST, PRESENT, AND FUTURE, P.K. MEHTA ED., PP. 383-397, AMERICAN CONCRETE INSTITUTE, DETROIT, SP-144 (1994).

TI : Global Warming Impact on the Cement and Aggregates Industries
AU : Davidovits, J.
AF : Géopolymère, Saint-Quentin, France
SO : WORLD RESOURCE REVIEW, PP.263-276, Vol. 6, N°2 (1994).

1994-1997: European reseach project GEOCISTEM; first MAS-NMR study of ancient Roman cement.
TI: Archaological analologues and long-term stability of geopolymeric materials. Results from the European research project GEOCISTEM.
AU: Davidovits Joseph and Davidovits Frédéric.
AF: Institut Géopolymère, Saint-Quentin, CERLA, Universié de Caen, France
SO: GEOPOLYMER ‘99 Proceedings 2nd Int. Conf. on Geopolymers, Saint-Quentin, 1999, pp. 283-295.

1997: First paper on CARBON/GEOPOLYMER composite and F.A.A. testing
TI : Fire-resistant Aluminosilicate Composites
AU : Lyon, R., Foden, A., Balaguru, P.N., Davidovics, M. and Davidovits, J.,
AF : Federal Aviation Administration Technical Center, USA, Rutgers The State University New Jersey, USA, Géopolymère, Saint-Quentin, France
SO : Journal FIRE AND MATERIALS, Vol. 21, PP. 67-73 (1997)

1998-1999: first prototype experimentation on radioactive waste containment at WISMUT, Germany.
TI: Solidification of various radioactive residues by Geopolymere with special emphasis on long-term stability.
AU: Hermann E., Kunze C., Gatzweiler R., Kiessig G. and Davidovits J.,
AF: BPS Engineering, Zwickau, Germany, WISMUT GmbH, Chemnitz, Germany, Cordi-Géopolymère SA, Saint-Quentin, France.
SO: GEOPOLYMER ‘99 Proceedings 2nd Int. Conf. on Geopolymers, Saint-Quentin, 1999, pp. 211-228.

2002: the making of 15 metric tones of agglomerated limestone (pyramid stone), in Saint-Quentin.
TI: La nouvelle théorie, des blocs en aggloméré?
AU: Davidovits J.,
AF: Institut Géopolymère, Saint-Quentin, France.
SO: Revue Historia, Paris, nr. 674, feb. 2003, pp. 70-77. See also on the Internet the English and French video
See also the book: La nouvelle histoire des pyramides d’Égypte, édition Jean-Cyrille Godefroy, Paris, ISBN 2-86553-175-9.

Granted and issued French patents

2.204.999 – 2.246.382 – 2.324.427 – 2.346.121 – 2.259.056 – 2.366.233 – 2.314.158 – 2.341.522 – 2.358.371 – 2.464.227 – 2.489.290 – 2.489.291 – 2.490.626 – 2.512.805 – 2.512.806 – 2.512.808 – 2.523.118 – 2.528.818 – 2.528.822 – 2.604.994 – 2.621.260 – 2.657.867 – 2.671.344 – 2.659.320 – 2.659.963 – 2.666.253 – 2.666.328 – 2.669.918 – 2.709.258 – 2.712.584 – 2.756.840 – 2.758.323 – ; other patents pending.

Granted and issued US patents

3,950,470 – 4,028,454 – 4,349,386 – 4,472,199 – 4,509,985 – 4,859,367 – 4,888,311 – 5,288,321 – 5,342,595 – 5,352,427 – 5,349,118 – 5,539,140 – 5,798,307 – 5,925,449 ; other patents pending.

PCT patent publications

EP 0 026 687 – WO 82/00816 – WO 88/02741 – WO 89/02766 – WO 91/13830 – WO 91/13840 – WO 91/11405 – WO 92/04298 – WO 95/13995 – WO 98/31644 – WO 03/040054 – WO 03/087008 – WO 03/099738; other patents pending.

General Litterature

See on the Internet, the Geopolymer Institute Library page

GÉOPOLYMÈRE ‘88 , Proceedings 1rst European Conference on Soft Mineralurgy, 1988, edited by J. Davidovits and J. Orlinski, Université de Technologie, Compiègne, France (1989).

GÉOPOLYMÈRE ‘99 , Proceedings of the Second Conference on Geopolymer, 1999, edited by J. Davidovits, R. Davidovits and C. James, Geopolymer Institute and I.N.S.S.E.T., Saint-Quentin, France (1999)

Geopolymers, Green Chemistry and Sustainable Development Solutions , Proceedings of the GEOPOLYMER 2005 World Congress, edited by Joseph Davidovits, Geopolymer Institute, Saint-Quentin, France (2005)

Books on archaeology

1988, The Pyramids: An Enigma Solved
Hippocrene Books, New York, ISBN 0-87052-559-X.

2002, Ils ont bâti les pyramides
édition Jean-Cyrille Godefroy, Paris, ISBN 2-86553-157-0.

2004, La nouvelle histoire des pyramides d’Egypte
édition Jean-Cyrille Godefroy, Paris, ISBN 2-86553-175-9.

2005, La Bible avait raison, tome 1
édition Jean-Cyrille Godefroy, Paris, ISBN 2-86553-182-1.

2006, La Bible avait raison, tome 2
édition Jean-Cyrille Godefroy, Paris, ISBN 2-86553-190-2.

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